This was largely because landowners, the industrial rich, and many middle-class people turned to the Fascists amid growing support for the Socialist Party and industrial and rural mobilisation. Thus, even though the support of Italians to Nazi atrocities have been often downplayed, our evidence suggests that Italian fascism led to local collaboration with the Nazis. Figure 1 Relationship between war casualties (top), 1919 Socialist vote share (middle) and 1924 Fascist vote share (bottom) throughout Italian municipalities. We use detailed data on war casualties to measure the extent of local hardship generated by WWI.

Snowden, F M (1972), “On the social origins of agrarian Fascism in Italy”, European Journal of Sociology 13(2): 268–95. These events have led many commentators to draw parallels between today’s right-wing movements and interwar fascism.

The correlation between the Socialist vote share in 1919 and subsequent Fascist support is likely to be affected by several other factors.

Our main result is a strong association between the Red Scare in Italy, measured by the vote share of the Socialist Party in the first post-war election in 1919, and the subsequent local support for the Fascist Party in the early 1920s.

Note that the article mentions in passing that the impact of the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was one of the drivers of fears of socialist policies being implemented. Our estimates suggest that as much as 15% of the increase in the Fascist Party vote share from 1919 to 1924 may have been due to the support of conservative and moderate voters in the face of the perceived Red Scare. To shed light on this question, in recent work (Acemoglu et al. Right-wing populist movements often come to power by exploiting people’s anxieties and fears. Figure 2 (middle and bottom panels) shows that the effects on fascist violence and the likelihood of having a local Fascist Party branch in the area are similarly large. The fascist takeover of power was an epochal event, which could have altered Italy's subsequent economic or political trajectory. Figure 2 (middle and bottom panels) shows that the effects on fascist violence and the likelihood of having a local Fascist Party branch in the area are similarly large. I’ve nevertheless been a bit reluctant to discuss fascism much, since the term has been too freely applied to Trump. 6 million were Jews and the rest were others that were different in Hitlers mind. What lies behind their ascendancy? It is a kind of totalitarianism, demanding reverence for the state and its leader and an elimination of political opposition. Topics:  In contrast to this, there is a very strong association between casualties and the Socialist Party vote share in the 1919 elections, regardless of various historical and contemporaneous controls.

Many elites came to view traditional centre-right parties as ineffective in stopping socialism and started to turn to Fascists. On the other hand, our results can also be read as a warning that we should watch out for heightening fears and anxieties rooted in economic instability, large immigrant flows or nationalism fuelled by international tensions, lest these start simultaneously radicalising right-wing populists and broadening their appeal among the population. A common feature of many of these movements is their exploitation of the population’s anxieties and fears – for example, those generated by the 2008 financial crisis and the large inflows of immigrants. Other effects can be total control by the government, leader, or dictator. Did the rule of the Fascist Party have a longer-term impact? On the one hand, if the interwar nationalism, militarism, and the veritable threat of socialist revolution were critical for the mass appeal (and violence and murderous activities) of extreme right-wing parties, then we may have less to fear that today’s right-wing populism will turn into a version of militant fascism. Adolf Hitler used Italian Fascism as a model for his own, though his version of fascism was more violent, racist, and genocidal. The Holocaust resulted in the deaths of over 17 million people.
In our paper, we examine what paved the way to the Fascist Party’s electoral success and show that the perceived threat of socialism was an important contributor to the rise of Italian fascism. A common feature of many of these movements is their exploitation of the population’s anxieties and fears – for example, those generated by the 2008 financial crisis and the large inflows of immigrants.

Ask students to research other propaganda that Mussolini used to improve his and his government’s public image, as well as other images used for anti-fascist campaigns. As Lyttleton (2003: 70) put it, “The expansion of Fascism in the rural areas was stimulated and directed by the reaction of the farmers and landowners against the peasant leagues of both Socialists and Catholics.”. In our paper, we examine what paved the way to the Fascist Party’s electoral success and show that the perceived threat of socialism was an important contributor to the rise of Italian fascism. As Lyttleton (2003: 70) put it, “The expansion of Fascism in the rural areas was stimulated and directed by the reaction of the farmers and landowners against the peasant leagues of both Socialists and Catholics.”.
Local elites, especially large landowners, played an important role in boosting Fascist Party activity and support. At the start of the 20th century, the Italian Socialist Party was one of the strongest in Europe. The economics of insurance and its borders with general finance, Maturity mismatch stretching: Banking has taken a wrong turn. Strikes and riots became more widespread, reaching their pinnacle in September 1920 when workers occupied factories all over the country in a move that could have led to a socialist revolution in Italy. In Italy, another conservative gathering got to be the main issue when Silvio Berlusconi (one of Italy’s wealthiest individuals) was chosen for his third term as leader in 2008. “Mussolini's Italy” is his response: an attempt to outline the impact of fascism upon Italian society. And when are they more likely to topple democratic institutions? What are the lessons for today? Figure 2 Local Fascist Party support and variation in 1919 Socialist Party vote share driven by foot-soldier casualties shock. Consistent with these assessments, our empirical results suggest a strong connection between the Red Scare, proxied by the increase in the 1919 Socialist vote share driven by casualties, and our three measures of fascist support, as illustrated in Figure 2. These events have led many commentators to draw parallels between today’s right-wing movements and interwar fascism. Mussolini advocated for an extreme, right-wing nationalism and centralized, anti-democratic power. Fascism and the ambitions of fascist dictators was one of the biggest causes of the war. These events generated palpable fear and anxiety among landowners and some elites, as well as among many middle-class Italians in cities and the countryside. In this context, a famous theory articulated by several historians (e.g. In 1919 Benito Mussolini, a veteran and former socialist who had broken with that party over the question of Italy’s intervention in World War I, founded the nationalist Fasci di Combattimento, or “fighting band.” Mussolini’s Fasci came to be known as the Fascist Party. In 1915, as Italy pondered whether to go to war, Mussolini broke with the pacifism of the socialists. Demers, F J (1979), Le origini del fascismo a Cremona, Bari: Laterza.

Ask students to analyze the visual strategies of Fascist and anti-Fascist imagery, presenting their findings in an oral presentation using exhibits. This may have been because their alliance and complicity with the Fascists in the 1920s delegitimised the centre-right establishment.

Our paper also explores this question using the source of variation coming from casualties and new data sources. Nolte, E (1965), Three faces of Fascism, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 109 East Street Road, Ohio, USA.

All three of these measures show a tight connection between the Socialist Party’s municipal vote share for the 1919 election and subsequent support for the Fascist movement. Did the rule of the Fascist Party have a longer-term impact? If the effects of war casualties and hardship are working through the perceived threat of socialism, then we may also expect other shocks that intensify left-wing support to have similar consequences. Rather, in line with the historical evidence, local-elite support appears to have been important in coordinating centre-right support under the fascist umbrella. To establish a causal link between the Red Scare and the rise of Italian fascism, we develop a new source of variation in support for the Socialists Party based on casualties from WWI in the local area.

I hope you like historical pieces as much as I do, particularly since history is much debated. The fascist takeover of power was an epochal event, which could have altered Italy’s subsequent economic or political trajectory. Covid-19 and School Closures: Can pupils make up for lost time? Rulers like Hitler and Stalin used but also expanded on developments that had been in existence in fascist Italy since the 1920s.

First, we show that in areas where there was greater local Fascist Party support, more Jews were deported between 1943 and 1945. This column explores the link between the threat of socialism and Mussolini’s rise to power and finds a strong association between the Red Scare in Italy and the subsequent local support for the Fascist Party in the early 1920s. When do such movements become successful at the polls? If you're asking about the impact of fascism, the biggest impact on the world as a whole was WWII. The two years following the election witnessed a further intensification of Socialist mobilisation.

Eichengreen, Avgouleas, Poiares Maduro, Panizza, Portes, Weder di Mauro, Wyplosz, Zettelmeyer, Baldwin, Beck, Bénassy-Quéré, Blanchard, Corsetti, De Grauwe, den Haan, Giavazzi, Gros, Kalemli-Ozcan, Micossi, Papaioannou, Pesenti, Pissarides , Tabellini, Weder di Mauro, Economic causes of populism: Important, marginally important, or important on the margin, Heterogeneous drivers of heterogeneous populism, Causes and consequences of the Sicilian Mafia. The notion that fascism is an elite/bourgeois reaction against socialism is plausible, but I welcome reader input. Right-wing populist governments have also taken advantage of panic generated by the COVID-19 pandemic to grab more power in Hungary, Poland, and Turkey, to name just a few examples. Economic history Politics and economics, Tags:  Fascism, interwar period, Italy, populism, Red Scare, socialism, Associate Professor, University of Leicester, Senior Lecturer, University of York; Senior Economist, LICOS, University of Leuven, Postdoctoral Fellow, Pompeu Fabra University, Pierluigi Balduzzi, Emanuele Brancati, Marco Brianti, Fabio Schiantarelli, Daron Acemoğlu, Giuseppe De Feo, Giacomo De Luca, 30 - 30 October 2020 / Webinar / AIIB / CEPR / LSE / OECD, 4 - 5 November 2020 / Brussels, Belgium / European Capital Markets Institute.

Originally published at VoxEU. The correlation between the Socialist vote share in 1919 and subsequent Fascist support is likely to be affected by several other factors.